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[laundry chemicals] categorizing surfactants

2019-01-18 16:39
Categorizing surfactants

Anionic surface active agents
When the surfactant is dissolved in water, the lipophilic moiety dissociates into - ion.
The anionic surfactant is an active ingredient that dissociates in an aqueous solution and the anion moiety exhibits surfactant activity.


① High fatty acid alkali salt (soap)
② N-Acrylic Amino Acid Salt
③ alkyl ether carbonates
④ Acylated peptides


① alkyl sulfonate
② Alkylbenzene and alkyl amino acid salts
③ Alkylnaphthalenesulfonate
④ Sulpho-succinate

Sulfuric acid ester salt

① sulfuric acid oil
② Alkyl sulphate
③ alkyl ether sulfate
④ Alkyl aryl ether sulfate
⑤ Alkyl amide sulfate

Phosphate ester salt

① Alkyl phosphates
② alkyl ether phosphate
③ Alkyl aryl ether phosphate

Cation surface active agent

The part which becomes cation by ion dissociation in an aqueous solution is the active ingredient showing the surface activity. Generally, hydrophobic groups of cationic surfactants, such as soap or soap, are mostly the same as anionic surfactants, but hydrophilic groups include simple amine salts and primary quaternary ammonium salts containing primary and tertiary amines, called phosphonium salts and sulfonium salts, and so-called onium compounds.

Aliphatic amine salts and quaternary ammonium salts thereof

① Primary amine salts
② Second-class amine salts
③ Tertiary amine salts
④ Quaternary ammonium salt

Aromatic quaternary ammonium salt

Heterocyclic quaternary ammonium salt

Amphoteric surface active agent

The amphoteric surfactant is an activating agent having one or more cationic functional groups and anionic functional groups at the same time, and there is a classification method based on the active group of the hydrophilic group and a classification method based on the compound structure.

Classification of hydrophilic group by anion active group
① Carbonate
② Sulfonate
③ Sulfate ester
④ Phosphate
⑤ Phosphate ester

Classification by chemical structure
① beta-phosphorus
② amidazoline
③ β-alanine
④ amino-system

Nonion surface active agent

Having a -OH group as a surfactant which does not have a group dissociating into an ion in an aqueous solution.

Ether type
① alkyl and alkylaryl polyoxyethylene ethers
② alkyl aryl formaldehyde condensed polyoxyethylene ether
③ Block polymer with polyoxypropylene as a hydrophilic group

Ester ether type

① polyoxyethylene ether of glycerin ester
② polyoxyethylene ether of sorbitan ester
③ polyoxyethylene ether of sorbitol ester

Ester type

① polyether glycol fatty acid ester
② glycerin ester
③ sorbitan ester
④ propylene glycol ester
⑤ sucroester

Nitrogen type

① fatty acid alkanolamide
② polyoxyethylene fatty acid amide
③ polyoxyethylene alkylamine
④ amine oxide

Biosurfactant: The progress of biotechnology has enabled the production of surfactant materials from microbial industry processes
① lanolin
② lecithin
③ saponin
④ bile acid

- Telomeric surfactants have the characteristics of general polymer surfactants and low molecular surfactants, and their synthesis is simple and their structure is easy to determine.
- Fluorosurfactants are surfactants at extremely low concentrations and have properties that can not be obtained with conventional hydrocarbon surfactants, so they are used in fluororesins, medicines, pesticides and the like as molding materials in spite of high cost.
- There are three silicone surfactants - (SiMe2O) n-, - (SiMe2-CH2) n- and - (SiMe2) n. Of these, only the polysiloxane system has been put to practical use.
It is easily synthesized from cheap diclo ddmethylsilane, has excellent surface activity and chemical stability.


CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration): When the concentration of the surfactant in the aqueous solution increases to some extent, the surfactant in the simple dispersion state forms an aggregate

Surface tension: A force acting on the surface (gas-liquid, gas-solid surface) to reduce its surface area. It is because of this phenomenon that the droplet soap droplet is rounded. When the cloth with the main ingredient is soaked in the soapy water, the soap will reduce the surface tension of the water, and the water will penetrate into the cloth and the oil film tends to come off. The hydrophobic part of the soap molecule surrounds the fiber surface and surrounds the oil bath to disperse it in the water.

In a colloidal dispersant, both a dispersion medium and a dispersion medium are liquids. ex) Milk
Oil droplets dispersed in water (underwater type): Milk, mayonnaise Source O / W type: Diluted with water.
Water droplets dispersed in oil (water-in-oil type): butter, margarine W / O type: diluted with oil.
Emulsions are often referred to as reversible O / W and W / O types, depending on temperature and composition. Emulsions are used in many fields such as printing and painting, radiation, polymer polymerization, food, and cosmetics. In order to keep the emulsion stable, a surfactant is usually used, which is called an emulsifying agent. After a long period of time, it is necessary to maintain the dispersed state of the mayonnaise or cosmetics in a stable state as separated from the fat-soluble powder and the water-soluble component. This is a surfactant that prevents dispersed materials from entangling or precipitating together. Surfactants have hydrophilic groups with strong affinity to water and hydrophobic groups with relatively low affinity. This dual structure keeps the relationship stable at the same time as it breaks the boundary where the two do not mix.

Interfaces: Interfaces are places where solid, liquid, gas-splitting materials meet, or where other materials meet, even though they are in the same state, and they maintain a high energy state, unlike the inside of a material.
Because of its unique physical properties. Molecules on the surface of water can be gaseous even at temperatures below the boiling point due to their high energy. However, the presence of an interface means that the materials do not mix easily.

Suspension: Solid particles dispersed in a liquid